The short answer is YES!
The long answer is: it usually takes more than just a cold day to seal the deal on a motorcycle battery!
There are many factors that play into batteries temperatures declining into a freeze. The area in which you live does play affect on how easily and often the cold weather is "cold enough" to freeze a battery. It's said to be in the negatives for a battery to "literally" freeze but if it isn't frozen, it can easily be discharged enough to not function later.
On the technical side of batteries, the battery shows fully 100% charged when it sits at 12.6 volts. The lower the voltage, the more discharged the battery is. The longer is sits especially in the colder weather, the easier it is to keep discharging. Once it discharges, then usually freezing can follow if left unattended long enough in the harsh weather.
To avoid this from occurring, there are really just two preventative measures to take. You can either ride your motorcycle throughout each season or purchase a battery maintainer. If your in an area where all seasons keep the warmer weathers, you may easily be able to maintain the battery's strength by consistently riding. When you live in the unpredictable weather change such as Missouri, this however, is not usually an option. With Missouri weather, it may be 90 degrees with sun shining one day then the next a snow storm. In states such as Missouri, it is much more common to purchase and utilize a charging and maintaining system. You can find our favorites in our store location at 1112 Swift in North Kansas City or via ebay at https://www.ebay.com/usr/bestbatteries
If your battery does in fact freeze, it is best not to try and "de-freeze" the battery but instead take it to get replaced so the battery may be disposed of properly.
*Big thanks to Motorcycle Habit for the excellent and helpful information.